Cancer Cervix Preventive Vaccine

How dangerous is the cervical cancer?

Cancer cervix is the cancer of the birth canal 
It is leading cancer in Indian women. 
It is the second most common cancer in women worldwide.
The most common cancer which causes death in the developing countries

Causes of cervical cancer

The central cause for the cervical cancer is a virus called HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS or HPV, HPV is sexually transmitted
The HPV detected today could have been acquired years ago
An HPV infection rarely leads to cancer, In most women the cells in the cervix return to normal after the body’s immune system destroys the HPV infection
Two types of HPV:
LOW RISK HPV: It leads to benign cervical changes and Genital warts
HIGH RISK HPV : It leads to precancer cervical changes, cervical cancer, anal   and other cancer

HPV IS A NECESSARY CAUSE OF CERVICAL CANCER, BUT IT IS NOT A SUFFICIENT CAUSE.
OTHER FACTORS ARE NECESSARY FOR THE PROGRESSION FROM INFECTION TO CANCER THEY ARE:

Immunosuppression
Use of hormonal contraceptives pills for long years,
Early initiation of sexual activity, multiple sex partners,
Tobacco smoking 
Low socioeconomic status, 
Poor hygiene and diet low in antioxidants are other probable cofactors.
Infection with HIV have been identified as supporting factors for cancer of cervix. 

Treatment for cancer of cervix

SURGERY: Ideal for removing the cancer the type of surgery depends upon the extent and location of cancer

RADIATION THERAPY: It uses high energy X-rays to kill the cancer cells

CHEMOTHERAPY: Chemo drugs are used to kill cancerous cells, It is useful in treating the advanced stages of cervical cancer

CONCURRENT CHEMORADIATION: It is a Combination of chemotherapy along with radiation therapy in treating cervical cancer

HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS VACCINE

PREVENTION IS BETTER THAN CURE

How does the vaccine work?

Like other immunizations that guard against viral infections, HPV vaccines stimulate the body to produce antibodies that, in future encounters with HPV, bind to the virus and prevent it from infecting cells.
The HPV vaccine targets the HPV types that most commonly cause cervical cancer and can cause some cancers of the vulva, vagina, anus, and oropharynx. It also protects against the HPV types that cause most genital warts. The HPV vaccine is highly effective in preventing the targeted HPV types, as well as the most common health problems caused by them.
The vaccine is less effective in preventing HPV-related disease in young women who have already been exposed to one or more HPV types. That is because the vaccine prevents HPV before a person is exposed to it. The HPV vaccine does not treat existing HPV infections or HPV-associated diseases

How the cancer cervix vaccine is given ?

The vaccine dose is 0.5 mL given intramuscularly, either in the deltoid muscle or in the antero-lateral thigh. It is available as a sterile suspension for injection in a single-dose vial or a prefilled syringe, which should be shaken well before use. 

The recommended age for initiation of vaccination is 9–12 years. Catch-up vaccination is permitted up to the age of 26 years. A total of three doses at 0, 2 and 6 months are recommended. HPV vaccines can be given simultaneously with other vaccines such as Hepatitis B.

Who should not get the vaccine?

 The HPV vaccine isn’t recommended for
Pregnant women
People who are moderately or severely ill.
Allergic to yeast or latex. Also, if you’ve had a life-threatening allergic reaction to any component of the vaccine or to a previous dose of the vaccine

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