DIET DURING PREGNANCY
is that period of your life cycle when you must eat a “healthy balanced diet”
Direct implication of eating a bad diet during pregnancy :
q Still born
q Low birth weight baby
q Premature baby
q Baby with brain damage or less intelligence
q Baby with poor immunity
Complications due to bad diet during pregnancy:
Pregnancy induced hypertension
Toxic abruption of the placenta
Severe infection of lungs, kidneys and liver.
Miscarriage or abortion
Components of weight gain :
vAverage baby weight-3.4 kg
vExtra stored protein, fat and nutrients-3.18 kg
vBreast enlargement-0.9 kg
v Enlargement of uterus-0.9 kg
vAmniotic fluid surrounding- 0.9 kg
vExtra blood- 1.8 kg
v Extra body fluids-1.8 kg
Energy requirement during pregnancy
An additional 300 calories to the prepregnant requirement.
Sources of calories:
Carbohydrates – 4 k.cal/gm.
55-60% of total calories.
Food sources :
wheat, rice, oats, maize, bread, etc.
20 % increase(15 gm + normal requirement)
Food sources : –
Good quality / complete protein –
non vegetarian food.
soya products etc.
<30 % of calories
Fats Sources :
All the vitamins, i.e. A,B,C,D,E,K to be taken in appropriate amount
• Folic acid: Food source- organ meats, dark green leafy vegetables, muscle meats, poultry, fish, eggs, whole grain cereals.
ü Calcium- milk & products, pulses and legumes, egg, green leafy veg.,sea food
ü Iron- liver, organ meat, meat, poultry,egg yolk,whole grains, legumes, green leafy vegetables, nuts and dry fruits, iodized salt, sea food
ü Zinc- sea foods, organ meat, meat and poultry, wheat germ, yeast
30 – 40 g of fibre per day
Whole grain and cereals like wheat, ragi,whole pulses, legumes, fenugreek, vegetables and fruits.
Healthy balanced diet
• Milk or milk products-about 3-4 glasses
• Pulses and legumes-60 g and atleast one serving in the form of sprouts
• Non-veg./paneer-50-100 g
• Cereals-150-200 g. Whole grains and unrefined
• Vegetables-2-3 servings of green leafy veg and seasonal vegetables, 2-3 servings of salad
3-4 fruits with atleast one citrus fruit.
Sugar -5-6 tsp. (in moderation)
Fat and oil- 5-6 tsp. (in moderation)
Pattern of eating
§ Take small and frequent meals
§ No skipping of meals
§ Go for healthy “in-between snacking” early dinners
§ Avoid taking junk food
Concerns during pregnancy
§ Follow a healthy eating pattern Avoid greasy or fried foods, as they take longer to digest.
§ Don’t lie down right after you eat
§ Before getting out of your bed, eat a snack like biscuit or rusk
§ Be sure to drink juices, if you cant eat solid food
Constipation-due to increasing pressure of the growing uterus, hormonal changes, iron and calcium supplements.
To avoid it or to deal with it :
• Have lots of salad
• Have plenty of green leafy vegetables
• Try having whole grains and pulses
• Have whole fruits rather than juices devoid of fibers
• Drink plenty of liquids
• Go for a regular walk
Complications of bad diet during pregnancy
• Pregnancy induced hypertension
• Gestational diabetes
• Pre-existing disease
Implications of smoking
§ Preterm deliveries
§ Perinatal mortality
§ Low birth weight babies
How does smoking interfere10% reduction in oxygen carrying capacity. Vascular constriction ,lower serum levels of vit. C, carotene, vit. B12 and zinc.
fetal alcohol syndrome Must avoid drinking alcohol
Moderate caffeine- less than 300 mg/day. Caffeine content of some food and beverages:
• Coffee-50-100 mg
• Brewed tea-20-110 mg
• Cola-30- 56 mg
• Chocolate-10- 50 mg
• Pain relievers- 30 mg
ABC to follow
A= Avoid bad habits
B=Build good habits like exercising regularly and eating nutritious diet
C=Consistent medical checkups and nutritional guidance.
Follow the healthy way of living to prepare for your bundle of joy