Uterine Fibroid: Causes & Symptoms
What are uterine fibroids?
Uterine fibroid is a leiomyoma(benign tumor from smooth muscle tissue) that originates from the smooth muscle layer (myometrium) of the uterus.
Causes of fibroids in women
- Family history
- Genetic alterations.
- Other chemicals.
What are the risk factors for these tumors?
- Oral contraceptives.
How do we classify uterine fibroids?
Body or corporeal fibroids
• Intramural or interstitial fibroids
• Sub serosal fibroids
• Submucosal fibroids
Secondary changes in uterine fibroids
• Hyaline degeneration
• Cystic degeneration
• Fatty degeneration
• Red degeneration
• Septic degeneration
What problems are caused by uterine fibroid?
• 75 % remains asymptomatic • Menustrual abnormalities – Menorrhagia (30%) – Metrorrhagia or irregular bleeding • Dysmenorrhea • Infertility(30%) • Pain lower abdomen • Abdominal swelling (lump) • Pressure symptoms
What are the diagnostic methods ?
• An abdominal, transvaginal or pelvic ultrasound
• An endometrial biopsy
• A hysteroscopy
What your doctor finds on examination?
• Feel is firm more towards hard may be cystic in cystic degeneration.
• Margins are well defined except the lower pole.
• nodular may be uniformly enlarged
• Mobility is restricted from above downwards but can be moved from side to side.
• Percussion : swelling is dull
• Bimanual examination
reveals uterus irregularly
• Uterus is not felt
separated from the
swelling and as such
a groove is not felt
between the uterus
and the mass.
• The cervix moves
with the movement
of the tumour felt per
How do we treat uterine fibroid?
For symptomatic fibroids
• Medication to control symptoms
• Medication aimed at shrinking tumours
• Ultrasound fibroid destruction
• surgically aided methods to reduce blood supply of fibroids
• Myomectomy or radio frequency ablation
• Treatment for infection and anemia
• Oral contraceptive pills • GnRH agonists • The antihormonal drug RU-486 (mifepristone) • Danazol (Danocrine) • Antifibrinolytics (tranexamic acid) • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents • Progesterone receptor modulator named Ellaone
• Myomectomy • Hysterectomy • Uterine artery embolization • Uterine artery ligation • Radio frequency ablation • Endometrial ablation
Complications of Uterine fibroid
• Abdominal pains
• Premature birth, labor problems, miscarriages
• Twisting of the fibroid
• Urinary tract infections
• A C-section may be needed
• Some pregnant women with fibroids have heavy bleeding immediately after giving birth.